Short Multiplication - Meaning of multiplication in relation to addition. Method for short multipliation ( 2 digit number x 1 digit number) Long Multiplication - Meaning of long multipliccation through practical application. Method for long multiplication ( 2 or 3 digit number x 2 or 3 digit number) Short Division - Meaning of division with and without remainder. Methods for short division in two formats, 38÷8 and 8)38 Long Division (A) Estimation - Meaning of estimation with examples of rounding up and rounding down. Methods for simpler long divisions using (Estimate-Multiply-Subtract) Long Division (B) Bringing Down - Long division of larger numbers with 'bring-downs' in the working Basic Operations with Fractions - Meaning of basic vocabulary, what fractions represent, and equivalent fractions. Methods for converting improper fractions to mixed numbers, and reducing fractions Addition of Fractions - Meaning of adding fractions with the same denominator. Meaning of adding fractions with different denominators. Methods for both of the above Subtraction of Fractions - Meaning of subtraction, and relation to addition. Methods for subtraction, including the subtraction of mixed numbers and "borrowing from the whole number" Multiplication of Fractions - Meaning of multiplication related to area. Methods for multiplying any combination of fractions, whole numbers, and mixed numbers Division of Fractions - Basic meaning of division, and relation to multiplication. The method for division of fractions ("invert and multiply") Substitution - The use of letters to represent unknown numbers. Methods for substitution, including negative numbers and fractions Simplification - The use of letters to represent unknown numbers. Methods for substitution, including negative numbers and fraction Equations - Meaning of solving an equation, using the example of a weighing scales. The transposition method for solving equations